Discovery Services: Basics and Resources

A discovery service is an online library searching tool that provides an all-in-one interface for finding both local library items and online subscription and open access resources.

Why learn about discovery services?

Most libraries use discovery services in addition to, or as a replacement for, their OPAC.  Whether you are a technical services librarian whose job it is to administer them or a reference librarian who uses them as a major research tool, it is helpful to know how discovery services work.  You need to know their features and their limitations.

The Basics

For this article, we will use Summon (with Serials Solutions) as an example.  But all discovery services share the same basic functions and features.  They consist of three major parts: the index, the link resolver, and the search interface.

Summon is a discovery service developed by ProQuest and now managed and supported by Ex Libris (since their merger).  Summon allows users to search for print and electronic resources owned or subscribed to by their library.

In my library, Summon works in conjunction with Serials Solutions 360 Link using a Summon Unified Index to provide links to ebooks (and chapters), journal articles, audio, videos, library catalog records, institutional repositories, LibGuides, and more.

Summon Unified Index
Source: http://exl-edu.com/07_Summon/Overview/Discovery/Introduction to Summon

The Summon index contains citation metadata, subject terms, abstracts, full text, and direct links (when available).  It also includes Ulrichsweb information, DOIs, altmetrics, and citation counts.

Summon Indexing

The combination of Summon and Serials Solutions employs two methods of indexing applied in this order:

  1. Summon – Index Enhanced Direct Linking (IEDL)
  2. Serials Solutions 360 Link – OpenURL Link Resolver
Summon for Researchers
Source: http://exl-edu.com/07_Summon/Overview/Discovery/Understanding the Summon Index

When you perform a search and Summon returns results, Summon first looks to see if it has a direct link to the item using its proprietary Index Enhanced Direct Linking (IEDL).  These are reliable links that point specifically to the title and are successful more than 99% of the time, according to Ex Libris.

If Summon doesn’t have an IEDL record, the metadata is passed to Serials Solutions 360 Link.  This is a link resolver that relies on OpenURL technology.  What this means is that 360 Link must build a URL containing item search metadata in a format that the database website can use.  Most broken search results links occur when either the URL is badly formed or the metadata on the database’s side is incorrect.  Fortunately, Summon gives you ways to work around the problem by providing DOIs, other database choices, or links to the ebook or journal level so that you can browse to the chapter or article.

One great feature is Summon’s ability to do a full-text search for library print book holdings by indexing electronic versions of the same title, even if they aren’t owned by your library.

Relevancy Ranking and Filters

Summon then performs relevancy ranking on the results using a proprietary method that is a combination of dynamic and static ranking. Dynamic ranking includes search term frequency, field (title, author, abstract) weighting, term manipulation (synonyms, stemming, etc.), and other functions.  Static ranking includes item attributes such as content type, date published, peer-review status, and citation counts.  Library collection items are given a higher ranking than subscription database items.

After relevancy ranking, Summon filters search results for those items that your library has access to by default.  Of course, users can see all of the relevant results by checking the “Add results beyond your library’s collection” box.

Finally, Summon offers several filters to limit results to full text, peer-review, library catalog, content type, discipline, publication date, and language.

Library Resources Management

Now that we know how Summon indexes and creates search results links, we need to know how Summon selects results that are only contained in your library’s collection.  In this sense, your “collection” means both your print holdings as well as all of the online resources you own or subscribe to.

eBook and e-Journal Holdings

In order for Summon to link to your online ebook and e-journal holdings, you must tell Summon what you own or subscribe to.  You do this by activating or “tracking” your holdings in Serials Solutions 360 Core, the back-end of 360 Link and interface for the ProQuest Knowledgebase.  You can track entire databases, publisher collections, journal titles (with specific date ranges), and individual ebooks.

Serials Solutions e-Catalog List

For each database you subscribe to, you might subscribe to all of the titles (if offered as a complete package) or you might subscribe to only some of the titles (if purchased individually).

If titles within a database are purchased individually, you must track those individual titles.  In addition, you also might need to set custom dates if you don’t subscribe to the entire run of the journal title.  If you subscribe to an entire database, new titles get added automatically when they become available.  Ebook Central can also be set up to add your newly purchased ebook titles (perpetual and DDA) automatically.  Otherwise, library staff must add new ebook and e-journal titles manually.

Serials Solutions e-Catalog Titles

Because libraries often have unique access requirements, Serials Solutions gives you a way to customize your access URL and other details.  For databases which do not have article- or ebook-level linking, you can choose to link at the database level instead.  You can choose to include your proxy URL for subscribed titles or omit it for open access resources. You can include custom journal subscription date ranges.  Finally, you can add custom public notes (such as login information).

Serials Solutions e-Catalog Details

Library Catalogs and Institutional Repositories

Discovery services can include records from your library catalog and institutional repository.  There are several different methods for getting the local records into the Summon index.

At my library, to get our library catalog indexed, we export bibliographic and holdings records from our ILS on a periodic basis and upload them via FTP to Ex Libris.  Staff at Ex Libris then add them to the Summon index (a process that can take several weeks).

For many institutional repositories, you provided Summon with access to your institutional repository metadata using Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH).  Institutional repository content is then harvested automatically on a periodic basis (weekly for Summon).

Resources

Here are some great online resources to learn about discovery services:

Articles and books about discovery services:

The Future of Library Resource Discovery by Marshall Breeding

The Future of Library Resource Discovery“A white paper commissioned by the NISO Discovery to Delivery (D2D) Topic Committee” gives an overview of the current state of library discovery services and looks into how they might adapt to the future.  Published in 2015.

Access the full-text article (PDF).

E-Discovery Tools and Applications in Modern Libraries edited by Egbert de Smet and Sangeeta Dhamdhere

 My library My History Books on Google Play E-Discovery Tools and Applications in Modern LibrariesPart of the “Advances in Library and Information Science” (ALIS) series.  This book is a collection of papers covering discovery UX, e-metrics, open source, digital libraries, and library usage studies. Published in 2016.

View details and find a place to buy or borrow at Google Books.

Implementing Web-Scale Discovery Services: A Practical Guide for Librarians by JoLinda Thompson

Implementing Web-Scale Discovery Services: A Practical Guide for LibrariansNo. 9 in the “Practical Guides for Librarians” series.  From the publisher: this book is a “one-stop source for librarians seeking to evaluate, purchase, and implement a web-scale discovery service.”  Published in 2014.

View details and find a place to buy or borrow at Google Books.

Web Scale Discovery Services by Jason Vaughan

Web Scale Discovery ServicesThis title is actually an issue of Library Technology Reports from ALA Tech Source.  The report covers the content, interface, and functionality of discovery services from the major vendors to help with evaluation.  Possibly a bit dated now. Published in 2011.

View details and find a place to buy or borrow at Google Books.

6 Chrome Browser Extensions Every Librarian Needs

Google ChromeA look at global browser market share data will show that Google’s Chrome browser commands more than half of the browser market (58.4% for January 2017, to be specific).  The market share might be even higher among librarians (who have a choice at work).  If you’re not a Google Chrome user, these six browser extensions might make you switch.

If you’ve never considered browser extensions, they are plugins or small applications that add functionality to your browser.  Sometimes they work in the background (like Grammarly, below) but usually they work when you click on a small icon that gets added to the browser’s toolbar.

Chrome browser extension icons

Google has a huge Chrome Web Store for browser extensions, most of them are free.  They offer help to install and manage extensions but for the most part, a single click will install an extension.  Sometimes additional configuration options are available.

Here are six Chrome browser extensions every librarian needs.

Continue reading “6 Chrome Browser Extensions Every Librarian Needs”

Basics and Resources Series 2016

Last year we created a Basics and Resources series to introduce some common library technology topics.  As you can guess from the name, in each article we introduced the basic concepts and listed resources where you could learn more.  Based on feedback, these articles proved very popular and we will be posting more in the coming year.

The Basics and Resources articles from 2016 were:

Linked Data

Linked Data mugLinked Data is a set of practices which involves the publishing, sharing, and connecting of related data across the Web in a structured format, preferably using an open access license.

Read Linked Data: Basics and Resources.

BIBFRAME

BIBFRAMEBIBFRAME is a bibliographic framework for the description of physical and online objects to make them accessible on the Web by using a standard Linked Data model. It is a replacement for MARC.

Read BIBFRAME: Basics and Resources.

Altmetrics

Altmetric ScoreAltmetrics are “alternative metrics” to measure the influence and reach of scholarly output on the Web through peer-review counts, influential news sites and blog posts, citation manager bookmarks such as Mendeley, Wikipedia citations, and social media mentions on sites such as Twitter and Facebook.

Read Altmetrics: Basics and Resources.

API

API GraphicAPI stands for Application Programming Interface which allows external applications to access software or Web services data, in the latter case by using HTTP request messages, for recombination (mashup) or custom presentation by the external application.

Read API: Basics and Resources.

We will keep a current list on the Basics and Resources Series page.

Support Open Access Resources

Open Access LogoWe continue our celebration of Open Access Week.

While open access repositories and journals are free for end users, they do cost money to set up and maintain.  Forward-thinking libraries are beginning to allocate funds to support open access resources.

Here are some open access resources you should consider supporting.

BioMed Central

BioMed CentralBioMed Central contains over 290 peer-reviewed journals in Biology, Clinical Medicine, and Health.  Your library can get an institutional membership to manage Article Processing Charges (APCs).

Knowledge Unlatched

Knowledge UnlatchedKnowledge Unlatched creates packages of scholarly books in the humanities and social studies which are “unlatched” to become open access ebooks through membership contributions.  The first two rounds allowed the release of over 100 titles, made available for free via the HathiTrust Digital Library and OAPEN.  The pledging period for the next collection, KU Select 2016, runs through January 31, 2017.

Open Library

Open LibraryOpen Library is an initiative of the Internet Archive with “one web page for every book” ever published.  Users can read public domain “classic books” for free or borrow up to five titles for two weeks each.  Users can contribute by adding books or editing records. Sign up for a personal account or register your library to provide in-library loans for users on your library network.

Open Library of Humanities

Open Library of HumanitiesThe Open Library of Humanities (OLH) is a UK-based open access publishing platform for scholarly peer-reviewed articles.  The OLH charges no author fees, but is “funded by an international consortium of libraries” along with grants from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.  Annual fees range from $534 to $1,600 based on institution size.  US libraries can join through LYRASIS at lyrasis.openlibhums.org.

PLOS

PLOSAdd PLOS ONE (and other PLOS publications) to your library’s databases list and activate PLOS ONE in your discovery service.  There are several ways you can get involved.  You and your institution’s faculty can publish in PLOS.  Your library can become an institutional member to handle Article Processing Charges (APCs) for your faculty.  Or you can simply donate to PLOS.  See www.plos.org/get-involved.

Open Access Week 2016

Open Access Week

International Open Access Week starts today and runs from October 24–30, 2016.  For all of the details, visit www.openaccessweek.org.

This year’s theme is “open in action” with an emphasis on how you can take practical steps to implement open access in your library or support its growth.

Open Access Week 2016

Ways to Participate

Many organizations which embrace and promote open access are sponsoring events to encourage participation in open access resources. Here are just a few of them.

Open Access Week Commitment

The Open Access Week organization is asking librarians to sign up and take “concrete steps to open up research and scholarship and encourag[e] others to do the same”.  Sign up at www.action.openaccessweek.org.

TwitterFollow on Social Media

Follow and use the Twitter hashtag #OAWeek.

 

Get an ORCID iD

Do you have an ORCID iD?ORCID Open Access Week iD Register  ORCID stands for Open Researcher and Contributor ID and is a unique 16-digit number which distinguishes you from other researchers in online resources.  Register for an ORCID iD at orcid.org/register.

Join COAPI

Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI) The Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI) exists to allow member libraries to help develop and share open access policies.  Sponsored by SPARC (the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition), COAPI offers best practices and advocacy for open access.  To become a member library, see sparcopen.org/become-a-member.

Support Open Access Resources

Open Access LogoWhile open access repositories and journals are free for end users, they do cost money to set up and maintain.  Forward-thinking libraries are beginning to allocate funds to support open access resources (and to support faculty who want to contribute articles to them).  Here’s how you can support open access resources.

Join the FOLIO Project

FOLIOFOLIO stands for the Future of Libraries is Open, an open source library services platform. Learn more about it by reading our recent FOLIO: An Open Library Services Platform article.  Work has progressed swiftly since its introduction in June 2016.  Join the FOLIO Project Discussion site to get involved.

Bake Some Cookies

Think open access only applies to online resources?  You can bake your very own cookies in the shape of the open access logo with a cookie cutter printed from your 3D printer using some open access cookie cutter printer files.  The scalable files are in .stl and .dae format and were created by Chip Wolfe from Hunt Library at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.  Download the open access cookie cutter files.

Open Access Cookie Cutter